食品安全监管再升级,国家加快修订农药残留、重金属标准

 来源:http://www.hbctest.com/news/19.html     时间:2019-07-24
食品安全事关民众身体健康和生命安全,如何让人民群众吃得放心?国家再发文件,升级食品安全监管,对接国际加快标准修订。

Food safety concerns people's health and life safety. How to make people feel at ease? The state will issue documents again, upgrade food safety supervision and dock with the international accelerated revision of standards.



5月20日,中共中央、国务院印发《关于深化改革加强食品安全工作的意见》(下称《意见》),认为当前食品安全形势“依然复杂严峻”。

On May 20, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council issued Opinions on Deepening Reform and Strengthening Food Safety Work (hereinafter referred to as "Opinions"), saying that the current food safety situation is "still complex and grim".



《意见》要求,必须深化改革创新,用最严谨的标准、最严格的监管、最严厉的处罚、最严肃的问责,进一步加强食品安全工作,确保人民群众“舌尖上的安全”。立足国情、对接国际加快标准修订《意见》提到,我国食品安全工作仍面临不少困难和挑战,形势依然复杂严峻。要求把保障人民群众食品安全放在首位,坚守安全底线,正确处理安全与发展的关系,促一方发展,保一方安全。

The Opinion calls for deepening reform and innovation, using the most rigorous standards, the strictest supervision, the strictest punishment and the most serious accountability, to further strengthen food safety and ensure the "safety on the tongue" of the people. Based on the national conditions and docking with international accelerated standards, the revised Opinions mentioned that China's food safety work is still facing many difficulties and challenges, and the situation is still complex and grim. We need to put food safety among the people first, stick to the bottom line of safety, properly handle the relationship between safety and development, promote one side's development and ensure one side's safety.



日前,国家市场监管总局发布了2018年国家食品安全抽检的情况,食品安全监督抽检不合格率由2014年的5.3%下降到2018年的2.4%。从数字上可以看出,中国的食品安全水平提高很多,但食品安全工作仍面临不少困难和挑战,形势依然复杂严峻。比如,微生物和重金属污染、农药兽药残留超标、添加剂使用不规范、制假售假等问题时有发生,环境污染对食品安全的影响逐渐显现;违法成本低,维权成本高,法制不够健全,一些生产经营者唯利是图、主体责任意识不强;新业态、新资源潜在风险增多,国际贸易带来的食品安全问题加深;基层监管力量和技术手段跟不上等问题仍突出。面对这些问题,国家市场监督管理总局食品安全总监王铁汉在此前的国际食品安全大会上表示,食品安全要加强事前监管,严把市场准入,同时强化日常监管,抓好过程控制,对食品生产经营全过程监管,推进食品风险分级管理,加大日常抽检、飞行检查、体系检查力度,排查食品安全隐患,管控食品安全风险,初步构建起基于风险管理的食品生产经营监督检查体系;依托抽检监测,强化事后监管。食品安全的前提在于建立标准,而这一标准既要对标国际,又要立足国情。

Recently, the State Administration of Market Supervision issued the national food safety sampling inspection in 2018. The unqualified rate of food safety supervision sampling inspection dropped from 5.3% in 2014 to 2.4% in 2018. From the figures, we can see that China's food safety level has improved a lot, but food safety work still faces many difficulties and challenges, the situation is still complex and grim. For example, microbial and heavy metal pollution, excessive pesticide and veterinary drug residues, non-standard use of additives, counterfeiting and selling fake and other problems occur from time to time, the impact of environmental pollution on food safety is gradually apparent; illegal costs are low, the cost of safeguarding rights is high, the legal system is not perfect, and some producers and operators are profit-seeking and lack of awareness of main responsibility. The potential risks of new formats and resources have increased, and food safety problems brought about by international trade have deepened; problems such as the lack of grassroots supervision and technical means are still prominent. Faced with these problems, Wang Tiehan, Director of Food Safety of the State Administration of Market Supervision and Administration, said at the previous International Food Safety Conference that food safety should be strengthened in advance, market access should be strictly controlled, daily supervision should be strengthened, process control should be well controlled, supervision over the whole process of food production and operation should be carried out, and graded management of food risk should be promoted. Rationally, we should strengthen daily sampling, flight inspection and system inspection, investigate potential food safety hazards, control food safety risks, initially build a supervision and inspection system for food production and operation based on risk management, and rely on sampling inspection and monitoring to strengthen ex post supervision. The premise of food safety is to establish standards, which should be based on both international standards and national conditions.



《意见》要求加快修订农药残留、兽药残留、重金属、食品污染物、致病性微生物等食品安全通用标准,到2020年农药兽药残留限量指标达到1万项,基本与国际食品法典标准接轨。国家卫生健康委员会张磊时巡视员表示,目前我国《食品安全标准体系框架原则》与《国际食品法典标准》基本一致。主要指标与发达国家基本相当。以公布各类食品安全国家标准1260项涉及近2万个指标为例,基本覆盖了从农田到餐桌、食品生产、加工过程,主要环节的食品控制要求,有效规范和促进了食品产业的健康发展,适应了食品安全监管需求。他表示,我国连续十三年担任食品添加剂农药残留两个国际食品法典委员会主持国,牵头两个领域的国际标准制定,推动全球食品安全水平提升,跟踪相关国际标准动态,履行世贸组织成员国义务,强化与主要贸易伙伴国和国际组织合作,建立食品安全沟通协调机制,维护国际贸易公平。食品安全要靠品牌渠道和严格监管对于微生物和重金属污染、农药兽药残留超标、添加剂使用不规范、制假售假等问题,业界认为,这跟中国传统农业生产的低效和链条长密切相关。明康汇生态农业集团总裁戚铁彪对第一财经记者表示,目前,在国内市场上,农业生产投入大、产出慢、产业链长、流通环节多,痛点很多。比如,“上游”以农户散户为主,很难统一标准;“中游”采购、转运、批发商贩环节;“下游”则以夫妻店菜场小摊贩为主。整个产业链下来,很难实现全程质量安全可溯。他认为,现代生活方式的升级,需要有品质保证的农产品来匹配,食品安全的最终出路,还是要靠品牌渠道,就是产品从哪里来、以什么样的成本销售、卖给谁、怎么卖出去、有没有议价权、有没有品牌效应、渠道是不是可控等,这些因素决定了农产品到底该怎么样去生产。

The Opinion calls for speeding up the revision of general food safety standards such as pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues, heavy metals, food contaminants, pathogenic microorganisms and so on. By 2020, the pesticide and veterinary drug residues limit index will reach 10,000 items, basically in line with the standards of the International Code of Food. Inspector Zhang Leishi of the National Health Commission said that the Framework Principles of Food Safety Standard System in China are basically in line with the International Codex Alimentarius Standards. The main indicators are basically the same as those of developed countries. Taking the publication of 1260 national food safety standards involving nearly 20,000 indicators as an example, it basically covers the food control requirements of the main links from farmland to table, food production and processing, effectively standardizes and promotes the healthy development of the food industry, and meets the needs of food safety supervision. He said that for 13 consecutive years, China has served as the chairman of the two International Codex Alimentarius Committees on Pesticide Residues in Food Additives. It has led the international standard formulation in two areas, promoted the improvement of global food safety level, followed up relevant international standards, fulfilled the obligations of WTO member countries, and strengthened its relations with major trading partners and countries. International organizations cooperate to establish a food safety communication and coordination mechanism to safeguard international trade fairness. Food safety depends on brand channels and strict supervision for microbial and heavy metal pollution, excessive pesticide and veterinary drug residues, non-standard use of additives, counterfeiting and sale. The industry believes that this is closely related to the inefficiency of traditional Chinese agricultural production and chain length. Qi Tiebao, president of Mingkanghui Eco-Agriculture Group, told First Financial and Economic Journalist that at present, in the domestic market, agricultural production has a large input, a slow output, a long industrial chain and many circulation links, and there are many pain points. For example, "upstream" is dominated by retail farmers, and it is difficult to unify standards; "midstream" procurement, transshipment, wholesalers and vendors; and "downstream" is dominated by vegetable vendors in husband and wife stores. It is difficult to achieve traceability of quality and safety throughout the industry chain. He believes that the upgrading of modern lifestyle requires the matching of agricultural products with quality assurance. The ultimate outlet for food safety depends on brand channels, that is, where products come from, at what cost, to whom they are sold, how to sell them, whether there is bargaining power, whether there is brand effect, and whether the channels are controllable. And so on, these factors determine how to produce agricultural products in the end.

以养猪为例,在小范围内,家里养几头、几十头,可以做到不用抗生素。但在大型养猪场,基本上离不开抗生素,关键是用什么抗生素。戚铁彪称,在明康汇,一方面饲养二元黑土猪,这一猪种本身抵抗力较好,抗生素的用量也较少;另一方面使用中成药起到保健作用,增加猪的抵抗力,但这会导致成本增加。最为关键的是,在屠宰前的28天,必须禁药。从科学角度来讲,只要提前四周停药,动物可以直接把抗生素残留排泄掉。当前,日益流行的互联网买菜场景,有相当一部分原因也是出于食品安全的考虑。

 网经社-电子商务研究中心主任曹磊对第一财经表示,纯电商平台已经不能满足现在用户的购物需求及购物习惯,全产业链的模式是互联网环境下电商模式升级的必然结果,传统生鲜零售企业的互联网转型需求越来越高,而生鲜电商平台与传统企业合作也在迅速补足线下短板。

相关标签:

相关新闻

相关产品